student of economy
(1987–2017). Was born in Denver, Colorado, USA: He attained his High school Diploma/ IB certificate in USA at South High school in Denver, Colorado and Slovenia, Gimnazija Bežigrad (International Baccalaureate) in 2005. He started his theoretical and practical research in economic and ethical fields by being the student of business and economy at Gea College, Ljubljana, Slovenia, University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado USA and was the student at Faculty of Economy at University of Ljubljana. His interest was focused on international marketing and strategy, and the comparison of the USA vs. European political economy. He had also many practical work experiences in the business and ethical field (was responsible for selling various products and continuously achieved positive performance evaluations; as a mentor volunteer, he mentored few children from disadvantaged households, encouraging them to stay in education). His research interests included the principles of scientific management, human relations movement, human rights, corporate social responsibility and ethical philosophy. Among a list of things that always made him smile were sun, techno/music and family. He had excellent social skills and was good at creating discussions and conversations, combining business, empathy and social responsibility. He was also passionate about volunteering with refugees and had strong awareness of cross-cultural communications and sensitivity. He is co-author of several scientific articles in the field of organizational behavior, human rights and public health in Slovenia. This included one of his last and most influential article The responsibility for linking research, policy and practice in public health: the case study on drug addiction treatment available at http://www.irdo.si/skupni-cd/cdji/cd-irdo-2014/referati/d-nolimal-nolimal.pdf
|2017||Human rights, public health and medical cannabis||Abstract|
The beneficial medical properties of
cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) are widely recognized. Yet the plant is
still listed in the most
tightly restricted category reserved for illict drugs that have "no
currently accepted medical use". This status has prevented the medical use
of cannabis and relevant research and triggered the debate between government officials on one side, and active members of civil
society, patients and individual doctors on the other side, whether to
legalize the production, possession and use of the plant for medical purposes.
Public health is what we, as a society, do collectively to assure the conditions for people to be healthy, happy and feel-well. It refers to "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals." In many countries public health is already providing leadership on matters critical to medical cannabis and health and engaging in partnerships where joint action is needed. Also, it helps shaping a research agenda and stimulating the generation, translating and dissemination of the relevant knowledge and articulating ethical and evidence-based medical cannabis policy options. Human rights lens also inform the decision making processes and development of optimal medical cannabis policies. Human rights are often divided between those that protect individual, civil and political rights on the one hand, and economic, social, and cultural rights on the other. Human rights perspective recognizes, among others, the right of everyone to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health and well being, including the right to treatment with medical cannabis and necessary services.
However, in most countries, including Slovenia, medical cannabis policies are still the product of controversy and remain surrounded by controversy as they are implemented. Related ethical issues pose many moral and social dilemmas rather than black and white moral questions. The scientific considerations blend with political and ethical conflicts, questions of public and individual rights are central and scientific evidence should become imperative to inform appropriate regulation and prescription of the plant. Public health ethics requires careful balancing between individual interests in personal (e.g., autonomy, privacy, and liberty) and economic (e.g., contracts and property) freedoms on the one hand and collective interests in health safety and security on the other.
Part of the public (society) already recognizes that cannabis prohibition clearly causes more harm than good. Many individuals and groups began advocating for effective government regulation of cannabis. Until recently, many medical doctors have been reluctant to publicly voice their opposition to the prohibition of the plant. But through scientific evidence and measuring patients’ experiences many doctors and other health professionals had recognized that prohibition was ineffective and harmful. One of the most egregious outcomes of cannabis prohibition was that many sick people could not legally access the medicine that could work best for them. At the same time, the prohibition had not prevented children from accessing the drug and it had led to the proliferation of more dangerous synthetic cannabinoids.
This presentation will not offer clear-cut answers to many of the ethical issues raised. However, it will provide public with many perspectives on the role of public health concerning medical cannabis . For example: What is the meaning of the most common concepts in public health, such as: population, risk, harm, and benefit in the context of medical cannabis ? How does the population perspective differ from the individual perspective? When it is necessary and appropriate to intervene to protect human rights? And when it is necessary and appropriate to intervene to protect the public’s health? Are factors such as risk, effectiveness, cost, burdens and fairness the best ways to evaluate public health interventions ? To what extent should social justice be an advocating value in public health? It is essential to recognize that scientific and ethical arguments about the cannabis prohibition and access to medical cannabis have to be joined to political solutions. This may help us think more clearly and constructively about the medical cannabis challenge that will affect many types of health and social issues common with many people and life in communities.
The presentation will provide many thoughts by both authors and some conclusions by first autor with which not everyone will necessarily agree but which can open dialogue with others.